Friday, July 19, 2013

An Introduction to Livebearing Fish

Just as their name suggests, livebearers are fish that give birth to live, free-swimming young. However, in the aquarium hobby, the term live-bearer is commonly used to refer to a specific group of fish belonging to the family Poeciliidae. This group of freshwater fish includes perennial aquarium favorites such as mollies, guppies, and platies.

Caring for Live-bearers:

Livebearers are able to thrive in a variety of water conditions and do well in planted aquariums. Though peaceful in temperament, it is a good idea to keep several pairs of the same species to eliminate any potential aggression that may occur. Livebearers are omnivores and require both algae-based foods as well as meaty foods. A varied diet including algae-based flake food, along with freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex worms, and brine shrimp will provide proper nutrition to a wide range of different live bearer species.
With an average life expectancy between 5 and 7 years, livebearers are relatively long-lived. This allows most hobbyists to witness the birth of several generations of fry. In fact, one of the most fascinating aspects of keeping live-bearers is the rearing of young fry. Hobbyists of all ages will be immediately enthralled and discover a new joy to fish keeping. Live bearers provide depth and dimension to fish keeping, provide a fantastic learning experience for both children and adults, and nurture a life-long appreciation for the aquarium hobby.

Birth of Live-bearers:

For most hobbyists, their first experience with fry (baby fish) is often through livebearers. Without any effort on your part, you may discover that the livebearers you brought home have given birth to a small brood. Depending on water conditions, temperature, and diet some live bearers can have broods as often as every four to eight weeks. You can tell if a female is ready to give birth by her enlarged abdomen or a dark spot located near her anal fin. The spot will turn darker as her delivery date nears. But you must be watchful because some fish will eagerly feast on the newly hatched fry.

To prevent this from happening, place the pregnant female in a separate 5-20 gallon breeding tank just before she releases the fry. This nursery should have all the features of a regular aquarium including filtration (simple foam filters are a great choice), a heater, and some artificial plants for cover. Float the plants, as babies will hide at the surface when first born. Substrate is not necessary and having no substrate makes it easier to see and remove uneaten food. After the pregnant female has released all of her fry, remove the female and return her to the main display aquarium.

Raising Fry:

The fry should be fed a quality food, such as baby brine shrimp, baby fish food, or quality flake food ground into a fine powder. Feed the fry small amounts several times a day. Maintain good water quality by performing regular water changes. Using water from your established aquarium is a great way to acclimate the fry to water conditions of their future home. In about 4 to 6 weeks, the babies should be large enough to release into the main aquarium. But be sure the babies have grown larger than the mouths of adult fish. If it's not possible to set up a separate aquarium, drop-in breeders are a great alternative. Keep in mind that the babies will quickly outgrow and crowd the net breeder. The fry will need to be moved to a larger aquarium sooner to ensure proper growth.

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